Joan Adam, Secretary of Health

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COVID-19 Vaccine Frequently Asked Questions


Children ages 5-11

The COVID-19 
vaccine is FREE 
to all people living 
in the U.S., 
regardless of their immigration or health insurance status.The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have approved and recommended the Pfizer BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for children aged 5 to 11.

Who is eligible for the pediatric COVID-19 vaccine?

All children ages 5-11 are eligible to receive the pediatric COVID-19 vaccine. Children ages 12-17 are eligible to receive the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine authorized for adults.

What is the difference between the pediatric Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine and the adult Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine?

The pediatric vaccine (for ages 5-11) is the same vaccine as that for persons ages 12 and older, but at a lower dose. Both vaccines come in a two-dose series given three weeks apart.

Are COVID-19 vaccines safe for children ages 5 through 11 years?

Yes. The vaccines are safe for children in this age group. Clinical trials were conducted with thousands of children and no serious safety concerns were identified. The most common side effects include headaches, fever, and chills in the two days post-vaccination.

How well does the vaccine work?

Clinical trials conducted in children ages 5-11 have shown 90.7% efficacy in fighting COVID-19. The vaccine produces a strong immune response in children which helps prevent serious illness from the virus.

Why should children get vaccinated for COVID-19?

Getting a COVID-19 vaccine can help protect children ages 5 years and older from getting COVID-19 or its variants.

  • Vaccinating children can help protect family members, including siblings who are not eligible for vaccination and family members who may be at increased risk of getting very sick if they are infected.

  • Vaccination can also help protect children from both short-term complications like hospitalization and long-term health complications due to COVID-19.

  • Vaccinating children ages 5 years and older can help keep them in school and help them safely participate in sports, playdates, and other group activities.

Parents should talk with their child's pediatrician to get trusted, personalized medical advice and do what is right for their families.


Seasonal Flu & COVID-19

Is there a test that can detect both flu and COVID-19?

Yes. There are tests that will check for seasonal influenza A and B viruses and SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Testing for these viruses at the same time gives public health officials important information about how flu and COVID-19 are spreading and what prevention steps people should take. These tests also help public health laboratories save time and testing materials, and possibly return test results faster. More information for laboratories is available.

Will a flu vaccine protect me against COVID-19?

Flu vaccines are not designed to protect against COVID-19. Flu vaccination reduces the risk of flu illness, hospitalization, and death in addition to other important benefits.

Likewise, getting a COVID-19 vaccine is the best protection against COVID-19, but those vaccines are not designed to protect against flu. Visit the CDC's Frequently Asked Questions page for information about COVID-19 vaccinations.

Can COVID-19 and flu vaccines be administered at the same time?

Yes. If eligible, both influenza and COVID-19 vaccines can be administered at the same visit, without regard to timing as recommended by CDC and its Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices (ACIP). If a you're due for both vaccines, providers are encouraged to offer both vaccines at the same visit. Coadministration of all recommended vaccines is important because it increases the probability that people will be fully vaccinated.

Can I get a flu vaccine at the same time I get my COVID-19 booster shot?

Yes, you can get a flu vaccine at the same time you get a COVID-19 vaccine, including a COVID-19 booster shot.

COVID-19 Vaccine 3rd dose/booster shots FAQs

What is the difference between a “3rd dose” and a “booster shot”?

The dosages are the same, but the term used is different based on who is receiving it. Boosters are offered to people who received the full course of a vaccine and developed a good response initially, but antibodies waned over time. Third doses are given to people whose immune systems may not have been able to develop a good antibody response to the initial vaccines.

Who can receive a 3rd dose?

The CDC currently recommends individuals who have a compromised immune system receive a 3rd dose. Immunocompromised status will be left to self-attestation. People are considered to be moderately or severely immunocompromised if they have:

  • Been receiving active cancer treatment for tumors or cancers of the blood
  • Received an organ transplant and are taking medicine to suppress the immune system
  • Received a stem cell transplant within the last 2 years or are taking medicine to suppress the immune system
  • Moderate or severe primary immunodeficiency (such as DiGeorge syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome)
  • Advanced or untreated HIV infection
  • Active treatment with high-dose corticosteroids or other drugs that may suppress their immune response

Talk to your healthcare provider about COVID-19 vaccination and your medical condition.

I am immunocompromised and have already received my 2nd dose, when should I get my 3rd dose?

You should get your 3rd dose at least 28 days after your 2nd dose. You should attempt to receive the same vaccine for your 3rd dose as you received for your 1st and 2nd doses. Contact your healthcare provider to schedule a 3rd dose.

CDC is recommending that moderately or severely immunocompromised 5-11-year-olds receive an additional primary dose of vaccine 28 days after their second shot. At this time, only the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine is authorized and recommended for children aged 5-11. Click to learn more.

COVID-19 Vaccine Comparison Chart. See mRNA vaccines mRNA vaccines Vector vaccines

Who is eligible for a booster dose?

Everyone ages 12 and older is eligible to get a booster dose. See above graphic for more information.

Who is eligible for a 2nd booster dose?

The CDC updated its recommendations to allow certain immunocompromised individuals and people over the age of 50 who received an initial booster dose at least 4 months ago to be eligible for another mRNA booster to increase their protection against severe disease from COVID-19. Separately and in addition, based on newly published data, adults who received a primary vaccine and booster dose of Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen COVID-19 vaccine at least 4 months ago may now receive a second booster dose using an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.

What are the risks to getting a booster?

So far, reactions reported after getting a booster were similar to that of the 2-shot or single-dose initial series. Fever, headache, fatigue, and pain at the injection site were the most commonly reported side effects, and overall, most side effects were mild to moderate. However, as with the 2-shot or single-dose initial series, serious side effects are rare, but may occur. For Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna, side effects were reported less frequently following a booster dose than the second dose of the primary series.

If we need a booster dose, does that mean that the vaccines aren't working?

No. Data continue to show the importance of vaccination and booster doses to protect individuals both from infection and severe outcomes of COVID-19. For adults and adolescents eligible for a first booster dose, these shots are safe and provide substantial benefit. During the recent Omicron surge, those who were boosted were 21-times less likely to die from COVID-19 compared to those who were unvaccinated, and 7-times less likely to be hospitalized. CDC continues to recommend that all eligible adults, adolescents, and children 5 and older be up to date on their COVID-19 vaccines, which includes getting a booster when eligible.

Does this change the definition of "fully vaccinated" for those eligible for booster shots?

People are still considered fully vaccinated two weeks after their second dose in a 2-shot series, such as the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines, or two weeks after a single-dose vaccine, such as the J&J/Janssen vaccine. This definition applies to all people, including those who receive an additional dose as recommended for moderate to severely immunocompromised people and those who receive a booster shot.

Vaccine Safety FAQs

Why should I get vaccinated for COVID-19?

COVID-19 can cause serious illness or even death. There's no way to know how COVID-19 will affect you. If you get COVID-19, you also risk giving it to loved ones and immunocompromised individuals who may get very sick or even die. Getting a COVID-19 vaccine greatly reduces the risk that you'll develop COVID-19.

Are the COVID-19 vaccines safe?

Yes. COVID-19 vaccines available in the U.S. are safe and effective. They were evaluated in tens of thousands of participants in clinical trials. The vaccines met the FDA's rigorous scientific standards for safety, effectiveness, and manufacturing quality needed to support approval or authorization of a vaccine.

Millions of people in the United States have received COVID-19 vaccines since they were authorized for emergency use by FDA. These vaccines have undergone and will continue to undergo the most intensive safety monitoring in U.S. history. This monitoring includes using both established and new safety monitoring systems to make sure that COVID-19 vaccines are safe.

Your risk for serious health problems is much lower from the vaccine than your risk if you're unvaccinated and get COVID-19. COVID-19 can leave you with heart and lung damage and other conditions that require long-term treatment. Vaccines are much safer paths to immunity than the disease itself.

How can we know the vaccines are safe and effective if they have only been authorized for emergency use?

The FDA has authorized the use of three vaccines in response to the public health emergency caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Emergency use authorizations get vaccines distributed faster than the formal FDA approval process without skipping any mandatory safety checks. Large clinical trials demonstrated that the vaccines were safe and effective, and real-world experience has confirmed those findings. Learn more about the FDA's emergency use authorization process.

Will the shot hurt or make me sick?

No. Some people might get sore muscles, feel tired, or have mild fever after getting the vaccine, but most people report only a sore arm where they got the shot. These reactions mean the vaccine is working to help teach your body how to fight COVID-19 if you are exposed. For most people, these side effects will go away on their own in a few days. If you have any concerns, call your doctor or nurse.

Can a COVID-19 vaccine make me sick with COVID-19?

No. None of the authorized COVID-19 vaccines in the United States contain the live virus that causes COVID-19. This means that a COVID-19 vaccine cannot make you sick with COVID-19.

COVID-19 vaccines teach our immune systems how to recognize and fight the virus that causes COVID-19. Sometimes this process can cause symptoms, such as fever. These symptoms are normal and are signs that the body is building protection against the virus that causes COVID-19. Learn more about how COVID-19 vaccines work.

If I am pregnant or planning to become pregnant, can I get a COVID-19 vaccine?

Yes. COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for everyone 12 years of age or older, including people who are trying to get pregnant now or might become pregnant in the future, as well as their partners.

Currently no evidence shows that any vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines, cause fertility problems in women or men. Learn more about COVID-19 vaccines and people who would like to have a baby.

Are the COVID-19 vaccines safe for people with certain underlying medical conditions?

People with underlying medical conditions can receive a COVID-19 vaccine as long as they have not had an immediate or severe allergic reaction to a COVID-19 vaccine or to any of the ingredients in the vaccine. Learn more about vaccination considerations for people with underlying medical conditions. Vaccination is an important consideration for adults of any age with certain underlying medical conditions because they are at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19.

COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness FAQs

How do COVID-19 vaccines work?

Vaccines train your immune system to recognize and fight the virus that causes COVID-19. With vaccines, you can build immunity to a disease without getting the disease.

How effective are the COVID-19 vaccines?

All FDA-authorized COVID-19 vaccines are highly effective at preventing severe illness, hospitalization, and death due to COVID-19, including from variants. Remember: You're not fully protected from COVID-19 unless you're fully vaccinated.

  • Johnson & Johnson's Janssen vaccine requires one dose.
  • The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines require two doses.

Why should I get vaccinated if I can still get infected with COVID-19?

It's important to understand that infection doesn't necessarily lead to illness. If you're fully vaccinated against COVID-19 and the virus manages to enter your body and begins to multiply—that is, infect you—your immune system will be prepared to quickly recognize the virus and keep it from doing real damage. That's why most people who get infected with COVID-19 despite being vaccinated—so-called breakthrough cases—have no symptoms (asymptomatic) or only mild-to-moderate illness.

Nearly everyone in the United States who is getting severely ill, needing hospitalization, and dying from COVID-19 is unvaccinated.

How long do COVID-19 vaccines last?

Scientists are continuing to monitor how long COVID-19 vaccine protection lasts. Recent studies show that protection against the virus may decrease over time. This reduction in protection has led CDC to recommend that everyone ages 12 years and older stay up to date with their vaccination by getting a booster shot after completing their primary vaccination series.

If I already had COVID-19 and recovered, do I still need to get a COVID-19 vaccine?

You should get a COVID-19 vaccine even if you already had COVID-19.

Getting a COVID-19 vaccine after you recover from COVID-19 infection provides added protection to your immune system. People who already had COVID-19 and do not get vaccinated after their recovery are more likely to get COVID-19 again than those who get vaccinated after their recovery.

All COVID-19 vaccines currently available in the United States are effective at preventing COVID-19. Getting a COVID-19 vaccine gives most people a high level of protection against COVID-19, even in people who have already been sick with COVID-19.

No currently available test can reliably determine if a person is protected from infection.

Will the COVID-19 vaccine prevent me from infecting others?

COVID-19 vaccines reduce the likelihood that you'll develop and be able to spread COVID-19. In rare occasions, some vaccinated people can get COVID-19 and spread it to others. Importantly, only a very small amount of spread happening around the country comes from vaccinated individuals.

Do the vaccines work on the new COVID variants?

COVID-19 vaccines are effective against severe disease and death from variants currently circulating in the United States.

COVID-19 Vaccine General FAQs

When can I get the COVID-19 vaccine?

Vaccines are here now and everyone age 5 and older can get them. You have three ways to find vaccines near you:

How much will the COVID-19 vaccine cost?

The federal government is providing vaccines free of charge to all people living in the United States, regardless of their immigration or health insurance status.

Do I need to wear a mask and avoid close contact with others if I am vaccinated?

Should I wear a mask if I have a weak immune system?

If you have a condition or are taking medications that weaken your immune system, you may not be fully protected even if you are up to date on your vaccinations. You should continue to take precautions including wearing a well-fitting mask, until advised otherwise by your healthcare provider. Learn more about COVID-19 vaccinations for people who are moderately or severely immunocompromised.

How can I get a replacement COVID-19 vaccination card?

The SD DOH does not issue cards. You will need to go back to the place you received your vaccine to request a card. Clinics/Hospitals/Pharmacies may be able to re-issue cards based on their own policies.

How do I get a copy of my immunization record?

You can request a copy from your clinic, access your patient portal (if available), or call the SD DOH at 605-773-3737.

COVID-19 Vaccine Resources

Reviewed 03/30/2022

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