Rubella is a viral disease characterized by slight fever, rash and swollen glands. Most cases are mild.
In unvaccinated populations, rubella is primarily a childhood disease. Where children are well immunized, adolescent and adult infections become more evident. Rubella occurs more frequently in winter and spring.
Rubella is spread by direct contact with nasal or throat secretions of infected individuals.
Rubella is a mild illness which may present few or no symptoms. Symptoms may include a rash, slight fever, joint aches, headache, discomfort, runny nose and reddened eyes. The lymph nodes just behind the ears and at the back of the neck may swell causing some soreness and/or pain. The rash, which may be itchy, first appears on the face and progresses from head to foot, lasting about three days. As many as half of all rubella cases occur without a rash.
The incubation period for rubella is 12-23 days; in most cases, symptoms appear within 14-21 days.
Rubella may be transmitted from seven days before to at least four days after rash onset. Infants with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) may shed virus for up to one year after birth.
Yes. Immunity acquired after contracting the disease is usually permanent.
Rubella vaccine is given on or after a child's first birthday, but is recommended at 15 months of age when given in combination with measles vaccine. The vaccine can be given alone or in a one-shot combination vaccine that protects against measles and rubella (MR) or measles, mumps and rubella (MMR).
Rubella infection is dangerous because of its ability to damage an unborn baby. Infection of a pregnant woman may result in a miscarriage, stillbirth or the birth of an infant with abnormalities which may include deafness, cataracts, heart defects, liver and spleen damage and mental retardation. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) occurs among at least 25 percent of infants born to women who have had rubella during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Maintaining high levels of rubella immunization in the community is critical to controlling the spread. Control of the spread of rubella is needed primarily to prevent the birth defects caused by CRS. Therefore, women of childbearing age should have their immunity determined and receive rubella vaccine if needed. Infected children should not attend school during their infectious period.
- South Dakota Department of Health, Immunization Program
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention