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WEBSITE OF THE STATE OF SOUTH DAKOTA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
Kim Malsam-Rysdon, Secretary of Health

Types of Diabetes

Prediabetes

Prediabetes means your blood sugar is higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be considered diabetes. However, prediabetes is still serious and, for some, will progress to Type 2 Diabetes within 5 years. Prediabetes info graphic

 

Risk factors for prediabetes include:

  • Increasing age, especially after 45 years old
  • Being overweight or obese
  • Family history of diabetes
  • Racial or Ethnic backgrounds of African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American or Pacific Islander
  • Having Gestational Diabetes during pregnancy
  • Given birth to a baby weighing nine pounds or more
  • Being physically active less than 3 times weekly

(Source: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/prediabetes.html)

 

A person can have prediabetes and have no symptoms. Nine out of ten people have prediabetes and don’t know it.

 

Take the “Prediabetes Screening Test” located in the “Diabetes Screening Tools” section to determine if you could have prediabetes.

 

If you discover you may have prediabetes, schedule an appointment with your doctor right away. There are programs available to help you learn healthy lifestyle changes that can help you prevent or delay getting Type 2 diabetes. Check out more information on this program in the “Patient Education Opportunities” section.

 

Type 1 Diabetes

In Type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce any insulin, so cannot change sugar into energy for the body. Instead, the sugar builds up in the blood to dangerously high levels.

 

Risk factors for Type 1 diabetes:

  • Having a parent or sibling with Type 1 diabetes
  • Genetics
  • Age. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, including adulthood, but appears in peaks in children 4-7 years old and 10-14 years old.

(Source: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-1-diabetes/basics/risk-factors/CON-20019573)

 

Symptoms of diabetes include:

  • Urinating often
  • Feeling very thirsty
  • Feeling very hungry
  • Being very tired
  • Having blurry vision
  • Losing weight, even though you are eating more

(Source: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/symptoms/)

 

Testing for Type 1 diabetes is done through a blood test at your doctor’s office. If you have any of the symptoms or risk factors listed, please contact your doctor right away.

 

If you are diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes, you can still live a healthy and productive life. Taking insulin, eating healthy foods and getting exercise will help you manage your diabetes. The Diabetes Self-Management Program can help. Check out more information on this program in the “Patient Education Opportunities” section.

 

Type 2

In Type 2 diabetes, your body makes insulin but cannot use it properly.

 

Risk factors for developing Type 2 diabetes include:

  • Older age
  • Being overweight or obese
  • Having a parent or sibling with diabetes
  • History of having Gestational Diabetes
  • Not getting enough exercise
  • Being of African American, Hispanic/Latino American, American Indian, Asian American or Pacific Islander descent

(Source: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/diabetes.html)

 

Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes include:

  • Some people have Type 2 diabetes and don’t even know it. There are not always symptoms present. Some symptoms a person may experience include:
  • Increased thirst
  • Urinating more often
  • Being more hungry
  • Feeling very tired
  • Having blurry vision
  • Having wounds that are slow to heal or having infections often
  • Having darkened areas of the skin, usually in the armpits and neck

(Source: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/basics/symptoms/CON-20031902)

                                                                             

Testing for Type 2 diabetes can be done through a blood test at your doctor’s office. To assess your risk for Type 2 diabetes, check out the “Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test” located in the “Diabetes Screening Tools” section.

 

Treatment for managing Type 2 diabetes comes in many forms and in many combinations. Some people need to use insulin, while others use oral medications. Everyone can benefit from healthy diet and exercise. If you have been diagnosed with diabetes, the Diabetes Self-Management Program can help. Check out more information on this program in the “Patient Education Opportunities” section.

 

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy when a woman’s blood sugar is higher than normal during the pregnancy. Having gestational diabetes increases a women’s risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life. Gestational diabetes also increases the risk of the child someday developing Type 2 diabetes.

 

There are no known risk factors for developing gestational diabetes. It may be related to hormones.

(Source: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/gestational/what-is-gestational-diabetes.html)

 

Often, there are no symptoms of having gestational diabetes.

 

The doctor will do a blood test near the 24th  week of pregnancy to check for gestational diabetes.

 

Management of gestational diabetes includes testing your blood sugar, eating a healthy diet and getting exercise. Some women need to use insulin, too.

 

Diabetes During Pregnancy: What is Gestational Diabetes? — American Diabetes Association video

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